Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Non-Athletes Benefit More From Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB)Than Athletes

 HMB, Is This the Supplement for You?

Argh, look like me

              Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) is a legal, non-banned, metabolite byproduct of the branch chain amino acid (protein) leucine that has been researched for well over 35 years (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). Some of the purported benefits of the use of HMB are; increased muscle hypertrophy, increased lean muscle mass, decreased body fat, increased VO2max, decreased blood lactate and aids in the repair of skeletal muscle damage caused by Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) or strong eccentric contractions (Lamboley, Royer, & Dionne, 2007; O’Conner & Crowe, 2007; Routhier & Stacy, 2007). Due to its purported benefits HMB is a popular ergogenic aid that is used extensively by body builders and strength or power athletes. There have been many studies done throughout the last 35+ years, but the evidence suggests that non-athletes receive greater benefits from the use of HMB as a performance aid rather than their athletic counterparts (Routhier & Stacy, 2007; Wilson et al, 2009).
                Research has shown that HMB is safe and that there are no ill side effects related to its use, also research has demonstrated that large amounts, up to 6 g/d, of HMB can be ingested to still be considered safe (Lamboley, Royer & Dionne, 2007). None of the investigated studies showed any side effects or complications from the use of HMB. Every study did implement questionnaires for the participants to determine if they had any complications during the course of the study and none of the studies had any reported ill effects. This is highly uncommon in the world of supplements. Many supplements do have some minor side effects, however, those in HMB studies did not report any side effects or physical discomfort from the use of the protein byproduct.  It has been noticed that the average dosage used in most of the examined studies is 3 g/d for a time frame of 4-6 weeks, but this duration and dose has not been proven affective in displaying benefits in well trained athletes (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). 
            Historically research has shown that non-athletes are more likely to enjoy the benefits purported of HMB. Some of the benefits that non-athletes or untrained individuals have seen throughout various studies were increased strength, decreased fat mass, muscle hypertrophy, peak isokinetic torque and improved anaerobic endurance over the course of a 4-6 wk training period (Routhier & Stacy, 2007). These benefits might have been related more to the neurological and cardiorespiratory adaptations that naturally occur in the first several weeks of beginning a training regimen. Most sedentary individuals will experience strength, power, hypertrophy and both anaerobic and aerobic endurance gains when starting an exercise protocol. Wilson et al, noted that very few studies using trained individuals have demonstrated any significant benefits for the professional or collegiate athlete. Only one study showed HMB to improve aerobic performance in active college students. This study used 8 men and 8 women to test the effects of HMB on aerobic performance and the researchers noted that those athletes in the HMB group improved their VO2max by nearly 15.5%, but there were also improvements seen in the placebo group (Lamboley, Royer & Dionne, 2007). This study was the only noted study with significant benefits of HMB use in trained individuals that were deemed significant. It must be noted that several studies that implemented intense training were able to show that HMB benefited both trained and untrained individuals when it came to strength and lean body mass increases (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). So it may be true to say the HMB can improve the strength and lean muscle mass of individuals that are involved in an intense workout regimen. Though most studies have not been able to demonstrate a beneficial use among trained individuals; it must be noted that the standard of 4-6 weeks and 3 g/d seems to be the golden standard for supplementation while maintaining the athlete’s general workout protocol . It might be for this reason that very small benefits can be seen in trained or professional athletes (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008).  Perhaps the dose, intensity and time period may need to be increased to see improvements with trained athletes.
In conclusion, according to current research it is clear that HMB is more beneficial for the untrained individual or trained athletes that are undergoing intense training. There is adequate research to prove the benefits of HMB for the untrained individual. However, HMB has not been shown to be extremely effective in improving strength, lean body mass, power or decreasing the effects of DOMS during training of trained and professional athletes (Wilson et al, 2009; Routhier & Stacy, 2007; Wilson, Wilson & Manninen, 2008). More research should be done to determine if HMB could be useful for trained individuals. Manipulation of the normative dose and duration could prove helpful in the determination of athletic benefits. Based off of current research, individuals just starting an exercise protocol HMB might be a great supplement for increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass. These are the two areas where untrained individuals showed the greatest improvements from HMB supplementation.. 

Images like this one are popular for supplement ads.

I am not an advocate of supplementation, however, people are going to use them and I believe that it is vital to give valid and researched information to the masses. Most supplements are safe, but there is always a risk when taking a supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements (unless a large amount of deaths are linked to a supplement) and manufacturers are not required to disclose all of the ingredients that are use in the supplement. This last statement is very important. Athletes that use supplements might find that they have taken a banned substance without their knowledge and end up disqualified from a sporting event or even banned from athletics at their school.The truth is that you can get everything you need from your food. Supplement only if you feel that you might be lacking certain nutrients or elements from your diet. Not everyone eats a well balanced diet. Research your supplement before taking them, and look at who sponsored the study. Beware of statements like: "Secret Formula", "Doctor Recommended", "Fast Results", and anything else that might be vague or lead you to believe that you will see results or weight loss in a matter of days. Research the ingredients. Research the company. Also, ask the advice of any certified fitness professional or nutritionist. 

Lamboley, C. R. H., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2007). Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on aerobic performance components and body composition in college students. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17, 56-69.

O’Conner, D. M., & Crowe, M. J. (2007). Effects of six weeks of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutrate (HMB) and HMB/creative supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 21(2), 419-423.

Routhier, D. D., & Stacy, J. J. (2007). HMB use an its relationship to exercise-induced muscle damage and performance during exercise. International SportsMed Journal, 8(2), 66-77.

Wilson, G. J., Wilson, J. M., & Manninen, A. H. (2008). Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex and training experience: A review. Nutrition & Metabolism, 5(1), 1-17. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-1

Wilson, J. M., Kim, J., Lee, S., Rathmacher, J. A., Damau, B., Kingsley, J. D., Koch, H., Manninen, A. H., Saadat, R., & Panton, L. B. (2009). Acute and timing of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutrate (HMB)on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage. Nutrition & Metabolism, 6(6), 1-8.doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-6

All images are from google.com/images

A little more realistic

Wednesday, May 18, 2011

Tabata Training

 You Know You Wanna Tabata?

Suddenly it seems that everywhere you look in health and fitness magazines there is the discussion of high intensity intermittent exercise or training (HIIE or HIIT). For the sake of consistency it shall be refereed to as HIIT. Previously, I discussed the important role that HIIT plays in fat loss and weight management, but I failed to mention one important and rarely studied HIIT method. This method has been a hidden secret for years, well maybe not that well hidden because even I know about it. However, it is out there and it works. Oh yes, and there is an app to guide you as you work out. My favorite Tabata app is, Tabata Sports Interval Timer and it is free. However, there are others out there that are good.  

What is Tabata? Tabata is a high intensity timed workout session that is broken down into four 8 set workout sections that are done with work times, rest times. The average Tabata session is 20 min. Trust me you will feel like you have had the workout of your life. Tabata training is the brainchild of exercise scientist Izumi Tabata of Tokyo, Japan. Tabata first started researching HIIT in the early to mid 1990s. His work is extensively well published, but only one study has been performed on Tabata styled exercise. Despite the fact that the Tabata training system has not been extensively researched somehow the word has gotten out and the popularity of HIIT is growing in popularity. Research from HIIT studies has shown anaerobic threshold increases of up to 28% and VO2max increases even with experienced athletes (2). Other studies that have focused on only metabolic improvements have found increased maximal oxygen deficit (1) which can lead to an increase in the resting metabolic rate post exercise thus allowing more calories to be burned throughout the remainder of the day. Therefore, Tabata, if done correctly can make you a better athlete and develop lean mass quicker than standard steady state exercises like running or elliptical for >30  minutes or weight lifting for one hour.


Will one experience muscle hypertrophy with Tabata style training? No, it is fast paced and the rest time does not allow for energy stores to return to a normal state. 

Will one experience strength gains? Yes, as with all exercise plans the exerciser will experience strength and other fitness improvements. However, training in a Tabata style will not allow the user to use heavy weights due to the repetitive motions in connection with a minimal energy storage replenishment time. Therefore, strength gains will be minimal.

Will Tabata make you faster? Maybe. This all depends on how intense you make the workout. The more intense the workout the better speed gains you will make.

Will one lose weight by doing Tabata? Yes, but don't forget the way to lose weight is with a negative caloric balance? Exercise more and eat less. Tabata will increase fat metabolism, and fat loss is good weight loss.

Will you want to quit during your session? Maybe. By your fourth set of every exercise you will most likely start to fatigue. But don't stop. Keep going. Reduce your reps or slow down your tempo. Just keep going. You will love the results that you will get. 

What should your heart rate goal be? Work at approximately 70-85% of your heart rate (HR) max. However, you will get better results working on maintaining a HR around 85% of HRmax. Overall, listen to your heart. You will know if you can push yourself or if you should hold back. A generic formula for HRmax is 220 - age = HRmax.

  • Example
    • 220 - 25 = 195
    • 195 x .75 = 131
    • 75% of HRmax is 131 beats per minute 


So how does one begin a Tabata training session? Here are a few good pointers to make sure that you do not kill yourself with your first session.
  1. Make sure that this is not your first ever exercise session
  2. Practice a few anaerobic exercises with other workout sessions prior to performing your first Tabata session. This will help raise your anaerobic tolerance so you won't die doing Tabata. 
    1. Sprints to exhaustion
    2. Body Weight (BW) or standard resistance training to exhaustion
    3. Try performing an hour long weight training session in 20-30 min, so you are exhausted.
  3. Be able to run 1.5-2 miles without stopping.
    1. Tabata might focus on the anaerobic system, but aerobic fitness will make this training more tolerable
  4. Make sure that you have a post workout snack or beverage handy
    1. You will be hungry after your workout
    2. Your thermic effect of exercise will be exceptionally high after an intense bout of Tabata
    3. Trust me, you will be hungry afterward
    4. A standard protein shake with a ratio of 3:1 or 4:1  carbs to protein will be perfect.
OK. You have satisfied the aforementioned checklist. What are you going to do?

Determine 4 BW exercises for your session
Pick the order that those exercises will be performed
Get a timer ready, because you will need it
Perform one exercise for each section of the session
There should be 4 sections for each session
Each exercise session = 20 min

One section consists of: 
20 sec of a BW exercise
10 sec of rest
repeat 8x
full rest for 1 min
Each section should last 5 min

Once you are finished move on the next exercise and begin the next section.

What kind of exercises are appropriate for Tabata? Honestly anything that can get your heart rate up will work. Ideally you should use only BW exercises. However, Tabata is great with Kettlebells, medicine balls and even free weights (if you have a timer). If you are relying on a watch then free weights might not be the best option. You can even focus on a certain body part as your work out; i.e... torso, abs or legs. Let me give you an example of a training routine. 

  • Squat to Heel Raise
  • Up Down Planks
  • Heismans
  • Push-ups
So do you think you are ready to give it a shot. Tabata probably isn't for everyone. It most certainly isn't for everyday. But it is the perfect exercise plan to fit in once or twice a week. Twice a week will give you better results. Perfect for those days that you just can't fit that long workout in. It's a perfect anaerobic training session to add into the end of your regular routine. Tabata is simply perfect. Have fun!

If your are interested in Izumi Tabata's research here are a couple. Google his name and I am sure that you will find more.

1. I. Tabata., K. Irisawa., M. Kouzaki.,  K. Nishimura., F. Ogita., & M. Miyachi. (1997). Metabolic profile of high intensity intermittent exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29(3), 390-395.

2. I.Tabata., Kouji. Nishmura., Y. Hirai., F. Yuusuke., M. Motohiko., & K. Yamamoto. (1996). Effects of moderate-intensity and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and vo2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(10), 1327-1330

 Example of Up Down Planks

Wednesday, May 11, 2011

Training Techniques

Weight Training Techniques

Priority System – A training approach, particularly for new clients that have been sedentary or have muscular imbalances, that suggests performing exercises that will target the muscles that require strength.
                Subject has weak biceps, triceps and deltoids
  The exerciser should do the following exercises
o   Bicep curl  3 x 10 @ an intensity of weight that is heavy, but tolerable
o   Tricep press 3 x 10 @ an intensity of weight that is heavy, but tolerable
o   Lateral Side Raise 3 x 10 @ an intensity of weight that is heavy, but tolerable


Pyramid System – This type of training focuses on developing strength and it places an emphasis on one or two muscle groups at a time. This type of resistance training requires exercisers to increase weight and decrease the reps as they progress with the workout. This type of system can be either considered a half or full pyramid.
Focus on the chest by performing a bench chest press
Pyramid Set graphic designed by: J Horgan

Who should use this system?
Those wanting to increase muscular size and strength would find this type of weight training very beneficial. Due to the time it takes to perform one exercise this might not be the best for everyone. 

Superset System – The general concept of the superset is to perform one exercise followed by another with minimal rest in between each exercise. This is an ideal training program for those that are limited on time.
                Chest press followed by squats followed by another followed by another and so on and so on.
Who should use this system?
Those that want to get the most out of their workout while using minimal time. Supersetting your exercises allows you to get more bang for your buck. Supersetting is perfect for those trying to maintain their current muscular strength and form.

Complex System - The concept stems off of the superset idea. The exerciser will perform one exercise working a primary agonist (Chest muscles) and then follow that exercise with the primary antagonist of the first exercise (Back muscles). Usually people perform this system in muscular groupings or general regions of the body.  
                Chest press followed by seated back row followed by decline bench press followed by Lat Pull
Who should use this system?
Those that like to separate their days into body areas; i.e., legs, torso, arms. Complex is probably the second most popular weight training system. You can use this system to maintain or gain strength and even grow muscle mass since it allows the exerciser to focus on muscle groups for the entire period of their workout.

Drop Set System – You might also hear this system called “strip sets”. This systems primary focus is on muscular hypertrophy. The person performing the exercise will start out with high weight and perform as many reps as they can to complete muscular failure. Then they lower the weight and repeat to total fatigue. There is usually no rest in between the sets.
                Example:  Weighted Back Squats

Drop Set graphic designed by: J Horgan
Who should use this system?
This is similar to the pyramid system, but in reverse and only in one direction (down). Perfect for those that want to increase their muscular endurance while increasing strength in the muscle groups that they wish to focus on. This is a great system for creating hypertrophy when incorporating slow controlled motions.


Circuit System – This exercise system uses both cardio and weight training as the main concept. Usually 35 sec of weights followed by 35 sec of high intensity cardio (cycling, jump rope, sprint) and is repeated for about 12-15 sets. To truly see the benefits of circuit training it is recommended that the exerciser maintains a heart rate that is about 65% - 85% of their heart rate max.  Use this formula to determine your HRmax [220-age=heart rate max(HRmax)]
                182 = HRmax
                182 * .75 (75%) = 136.5
Who should use this system?
Those that like to kill two birds with one stone. This system is perfect for the individual with time constraints. With this system you can get the best of both worlds. Cardio and weight training! Who could ask for anything more?

Lactate Tolerance System – A training approach in which a number of workouts are selected and the exerciser tries to perform the exercises in as little time as possible with little to no rest in between the sets or exercises. The rest time is determined by the fitness level of the person that is performing the exercises.
Who should use this system?
Those that wish to increase their anaerobic threshold and muscular endurance. The goal is speed and strength. This is most likely not going to be a great workout for those that want to increase muscular size since speed and quantity are the primary focus of this system. Don't sacrifice quality just because you are focusing on quantity. Remember, technique is probably one of the most important qualities behind weight training for many reasons and injury prevention is one of them.

Negative Set System – The training system uses the concept of the eccentric contraction as the main focus. The person performing the exercises will use weight that is generally 105% - 125% of their 1 RM weight. They then control the weight into in the eccentric (downward if you think of a chest press or bicep curl) motion while being spotted during the entire motion. The spotter will then assist the exerciser in the concentric action of the targeted muscle.
Who should use this system?
Those wishing to increase muscular strength and size would benefit greatly from this system. Warning: do not perform this system by yourself. Make sure that you have a partner, so you can spot each other. Keep in mind you are lifting more than your 1 RM. Quick strength and hypertrophy gains can be associated with this system.

Cardiovascular Training

Interval Training – This type of training varies speed and tempo during your workout. Walk to run back to walk. Jog to sprint back to jog. This is usually performed for a period of 15-30 minutes. The key to interval training is similar to that of circuit training, to keep your heart rate elevated. 

Fartlek Training – This is Swedish for “speed play”. Similar to interval training, but the exerciser uses variations in surface area and grades. Rocky terrain followed by sandy or hilly. The distance is determined by what the goal of the athlete is and the speed is generally predetermined by the athlete and destined by terrain. 

Intermittent Sprints – Steady state is maintained through either weight lifting, walking or light activity that does not bring the heart rate up to more than 60% of HRmax followed by high intensity run sprints, cycle sprints or quick jump roping. Doing sprints in between weight sets or some other form of exercise. Similar to circuit training.

Steady State – This is what most people think of when they think of cardio vascular Fitness. To truly see any benefit or weight loss from steady state cardiovascular training it is important that the exerciser maintain an intensity that will allow for minimal to moderate sweating and a heart rate of about 55% - 65% of HRmax for about 30 minutes or more.   

Tuesday, May 10, 2011

May Workout

May Workout

Warm-up:  5-10 min
    •  Stretch hamstrings, quads, glutes, calves, pects, lats and lower back and neck muscles
      •  Hold stretch for 2x20 sec each stretch (30 sec if your muscles can tolerate the stretch)
    • 5 – 10 minute warm-up. Take your pick (The idea is to get warm and to break a sweat)
    • 30 sec Jumping Jacks / 30 sec Jump Rope / 30 sec  Prisoner Squats
Endurance  Training (sets x reps) Perform the highest weight possible that you can do 12-16 reps with.
                Alternate your upper body days from your lower body days.
                Rest 30-45 seconds in between sets

·         Upper Body (Substitute the machine with either a cable unit, bench, ball or simple tandem standing to increase the level of difficulty)
o   Upward Row (2x16) Use the cable machine for this one
o   Standing Double Cable Bicep Curl  (2x16)
o   Skull Crushers on Stability ball (2x16)
o   Tandem Cable Chest Press (2x16)
o   Kneeling Lat Pull down (2x16)
o   Kettlebell Press (2x16)

·         Lower Body
o   Leg Kickbacks (2x16)
o   Glute Bridges (2x16) (increase difficulty by performing on a ball or by placing weights on or near the hips)
o   Double Knee Tucks  (2x16)
o   Squat Press   (2x16)
o   Calve Raise with Cable (2x16) (Do seated w /  weights on the knees to target the Soleus)
o   Hip Adduction w / Cable (2x16 each leg)

Cool Down
·         Walk 3 laps or jog 6 laps
·         Stretch hamstrings, quads, glutes, hip adductors, hip external rotators, calves, pects, lats and lower back
o   Hold stretch for 2x20 sec each stretch

Core + Cardio 2-3xweek (no resistance training on these days)
·         Do regular warm up
·         Perform 30-40 min (or as much as tolerable)  of cardio (Elliptical, stationary bike or other)
o   Core 
§  Medicine Ball Twists (2x15-20)
§  Leg Climbers (2x15-20 each side)
§  Bicycles (2x15-20)
·         Do regular cool down

Weight loss tipJump rope for 30 – 60 sec in between weight sets to increase your metabolic rate.  


Sunday, May 1, 2011

Decrease Fat Mass by Adding High Intensity Exercise to Your Resistance Workouts


[Type the author name]
[Type the company name]
[Pick the date
Decrease Fat Mass by Adding High Intensity Exercise to Your Resistance Workouts 
Jeff Horgan ATC, PES
                Have you ever been to the gym and found yourself admiring that person with the perfect physique? How about slightly jealous that their body was not yours? This is all too common for most people. We live in a society that is gradually getting more and more obese every year. Current statistics place over 250 million (7% of the planet’s population) persons worldwide as obese (Trapp, Cisholm, Freund, & Boutcher, 2008). Obesity carries with it several health risks such as coronary artery disease, increase risk for stroke, diabetes type II and increase risk for myocardial infarction (heart attacks) among several others (Jeret, 2007). The focus on reducing the obesity numbers has resulted in large numbers of new gym memberships, products touting quick results and people giving up because they are not seeing the results that they want fast enough. The sad thing is this; there is no miracle quick fix for decreasing fat mass, diet alone will not give you the results you most likely are looking for and you cannot reach maximum fitness without lifting a weight. There is no over-night pill or special cream that you can rub on yourself that will allow you to decrease your fat mass. To put it simply; you must change your life by changing your diet and adding resistance and dynamic exercises into your workout routine.
In order to decrease fat mass one should try to accomplish two goals: increase lean mass and aerobic capacity therefore increasing fat oxidation after exercise or excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Resistance (weight) training and high intensity intermittent exercises (HIIE) are both great ways to add lean mass and increase your resting energy expenditure (the amount of calories you burn at rest) (Westcott, 2009; Laforgia, Withers, & Gore, 2006). Resistance or weight training helps to increase mitochondria (the motor unit of the muscle) density in muscles which allows for an increase in adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) production. Many studies throughout the last decade have demonstrated that resistance training can increase the resting metabolic rate (RMR) (Scott, 2005).  Studies performed at Tufts University, the University of Maryland, University of Alabama, and Colorado State University have shown that moderate to heavy weight training performed 2-3 times per week can increase RMR by 7-10% with higher increases found from exercise bouts that were performed with either higher volumes or intensities (Wilcott, 2009). These studies did not look HIIE; however, these studies prove that mitochondrial growth caused by resistance training in fast twitch muscles can increase RMR which will lead to a decrease in fat mass and an increase in lean muscle tissue.
This process is increased even more when there is an increase in recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers during high intensity anaerobic exercise; i.e., sprints, cycle wind sprints or even plyometrics (Fernstrom, Tonkonogi, & Sahlin, 2003). Southeastern Louisiana University found that untrained men who engaged in circuit training with only 20 seconds of a rest period had an elevated EPOC when compared to a group that rested for 60 sec in between set intervals (Westcott, 2009). Laforgia et al, define EPOC as an elevated post-exercise metabolic contribution to the energy cost of exercise thus increasing the bodies temperature after exercise and increasing or prolonging the thermal effect of exercise (TEE) (Laforgia et al, 2006). This increase in EPOC or TEE is the goal behind including HIIE into your resistance program. When at rest the body utilizes fat as an energy source more regularly than carbohydrates, so it stands to reason that fat catabolism would increase during a heightened EPOC period. It also stands to reason that high burst of activity followed by moments of low activity that does not allow the heart to get to a resting state would increase one’s own EPOC thus increasing fat oxidation and promoting fat loss after exercise (Gibala, 2009; Fernstrom et al, 2003).
Gibala, 2009, states that HIIE should therefore be defined as a relatively short and brief intermittent exercise that is performed with an all out effort that should allow the subject to reach peak oxygen uptake whereas the subject is out of breath (Gibala, 2009).  A study conducted at the University of Tasmania found that 1 minute wind sprints performed at maximum effort on a cycle-ergometer elevated fat oxidation (fat metabolism) by 104% compared to low intensity bouts of exercise. They also found that only the intensity of the activity lead to an increase in fat metabolism (Warren, Howden, Williams, Fell, & Johnson, 2009). Other research states that as little as 10 minutes 2 times a week of combined high intensity training performed at 70% or more of VO2max presented the individual with an increase in EPOC. However, it has also been shown that only exercise intensity was a determinant of EPOC improvements; therefore, the exercise bout must be high enough to raise the heart rate to 70% or more of max (LaForgia, 2006). Intermittent training has been proven effective at increasing fat metabolism and decreasing fat mass, but it is not going to be a safe choice for everyone. Those that have previous injuries which have not healed or have been diagnosed with muscle imbalances that have not been fixed should refrain from participating in interval training. Also, persons that are at risk of stroke, heart attack or have irregularities with their heart should also refrain from activity without the clearance of a physician (Jaret, 2007).
I am sure that by now you want to know how you can include HIIE into your routine and what exercises you would include. First, there is no real magic duration or rep/set period that can be prescribed but that the exercise should take your breath away, perhaps lasting no more than 30 – 40 secs and performed 10 – 20 times (of course not all at once) no more than twice a week. If you noticed it was stated that your goal should be to not allow your heart rate to get too low. This can either be done by decreasing the rest period or by increasing the amount of activity during that rest period. Perhaps you are doing a regular weight training session. In between your sets you might want to include some sprints, jump roping, cycle wind sprints or even plyometrics to get your heart rate up. One more resistance training alternative is that you simply reduce the resting rate in between sets so your heart rate remains elevated (this is not a preferred method, but has been shown to be effective). Another suggestion is that when you perform cardiovascular exercise you change up your speed; i.e., jog → run → jog, or jog → sprint → jog, or walk → run → walk (switching from 3-4 min of one into 1-2 minutes of the other). I hope you get the idea now. OK, now that you have an idea about time and exercise duration let’s go over a bit of exercise selection.
Jump Rope
Jump rope at an intensity that is high enough for you to tolerate, but intense enough that you can get your heart rate up. Perform this for approximately 30-60 secs. This is a great exercise to perform in between sets or exercises.
Run Sprints
Pick a distance that you wish to run; i.e, 20 yards, 40 yards, or 100 yards. The distance doesn’t matter too much. Beginners will probably tire quicker than those that have been performing run sprints for a while, so those just starting out may have to sprint shorter distances before beginning to increase the distance. This is perfect for those looking to fill time in between sets or exercises.
Interval Run Sprints
Similar to run sprints, but the total distance is most likely increased. Pick a distance that you will sprint and a distance you will either jog or walk. Perform this exercise a couple of times. This is perfect for in between weight sets or grouped sets. Example: jog 40 yards, sprint 20 yards, jog 40 yards, sprint 20 yards, repeat 2Xs.
Cycle Wind Sprints
Similar to run sprints, this exercise is great to perform in between sets while doing circuit training (a form of training that involves cardio in between weight training). During your cardiovascular bout, cycle as fast as you can during the 25-35 sec bout of cardiovascular exercise.
Intermittent Cycle Wind Sprints
Similar to intermittent run sprints, but this exercise is more time based rather than distance. Determine first the amount of time that you wish to ride at a moderate/light pace (this time should be longer than your sprint time). Next, you should set a sprint time period (this should be short, but long enough to make you winded). Repeat the cycle of going from slow to fast for a period of 15-30 minutes. This exercise is most likely going to be your cardiovascular exercise due to the time that this unique exercise bout will require.
Have a great time experimenting with different intensities, timed durations, distance durations and exercises. Keep a log of your progress to keep yourself from getting stale and also keep a log of your fat mass or percentage. The benefits of HIIE have been demonstrated to be seen as soon as 3-6 weeks after the start of a HIIE program (Jaret, 2007; Trapp et al, 2007). The most important concept is to not give up on yourself, and you might have to try many different pathways before you find something that will work for you. Most importantly, keep it fun and exciting. You exercise plan should be something that you enjoy enough to keep you coming back for more.  
Ferstrom, M., Tonkonogi, M., & Sahlin, K. (2003). Effects of acute and chronic endurance
            exercise on mitochondrial uncoupling in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology,
            3, 755-763.

Gibala, M. (2009). Molecular responses to high-intensity interval exercise. Applied Physiology
            Nutrition and Metabolism, 34, 428-432.

Jaret, P. (2007). A healthy mix of rest and motion. New York Times. Retrieved from

LaForgia, J., Withers, R. T., & Gore, C. J. (2006). Effects of exercise intensity and duration on
the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Journal of Sports Science, 24(12), 1247-1264.

Scott, C. B. (2005). Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis.
            Nutrition and Metabolism, 2(14), 1-9.

Trapp, E. G., Chisholm, D. J., Freund, & J., Boutcher, S. H. (2008). The effects of high-intensity
            intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women.
            International Journal of Obesity, 32, 684-691.

Warren, A., Howden, E. J., Williams, A. D., Fell, J. W., & Johnson, N. A. (2009). Postexercise
            fat oxidation: Effect of exercise duration, intensity, and modality. International Journal
            of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19, 607-623.

Westcott, W. (2009). Research/science update: Strength training and resting energy expenditure.
            Fitness Management, 2, 42-45.