Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Non-Athletes Benefit More From Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB)Than Athletes

 HMB, Is This the Supplement for You?

Argh, look like me

              Hydroxymethylbutyrate (HMB) is a legal, non-banned, metabolite byproduct of the branch chain amino acid (protein) leucine that has been researched for well over 35 years (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). Some of the purported benefits of the use of HMB are; increased muscle hypertrophy, increased lean muscle mass, decreased body fat, increased VO2max, decreased blood lactate and aids in the repair of skeletal muscle damage caused by Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) or strong eccentric contractions (Lamboley, Royer, & Dionne, 2007; O’Conner & Crowe, 2007; Routhier & Stacy, 2007). Due to its purported benefits HMB is a popular ergogenic aid that is used extensively by body builders and strength or power athletes. There have been many studies done throughout the last 35+ years, but the evidence suggests that non-athletes receive greater benefits from the use of HMB as a performance aid rather than their athletic counterparts (Routhier & Stacy, 2007; Wilson et al, 2009).
                Research has shown that HMB is safe and that there are no ill side effects related to its use, also research has demonstrated that large amounts, up to 6 g/d, of HMB can be ingested to still be considered safe (Lamboley, Royer & Dionne, 2007). None of the investigated studies showed any side effects or complications from the use of HMB. Every study did implement questionnaires for the participants to determine if they had any complications during the course of the study and none of the studies had any reported ill effects. This is highly uncommon in the world of supplements. Many supplements do have some minor side effects, however, those in HMB studies did not report any side effects or physical discomfort from the use of the protein byproduct.  It has been noticed that the average dosage used in most of the examined studies is 3 g/d for a time frame of 4-6 weeks, but this duration and dose has not been proven affective in displaying benefits in well trained athletes (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). 
            Historically research has shown that non-athletes are more likely to enjoy the benefits purported of HMB. Some of the benefits that non-athletes or untrained individuals have seen throughout various studies were increased strength, decreased fat mass, muscle hypertrophy, peak isokinetic torque and improved anaerobic endurance over the course of a 4-6 wk training period (Routhier & Stacy, 2007). These benefits might have been related more to the neurological and cardiorespiratory adaptations that naturally occur in the first several weeks of beginning a training regimen. Most sedentary individuals will experience strength, power, hypertrophy and both anaerobic and aerobic endurance gains when starting an exercise protocol. Wilson et al, noted that very few studies using trained individuals have demonstrated any significant benefits for the professional or collegiate athlete. Only one study showed HMB to improve aerobic performance in active college students. This study used 8 men and 8 women to test the effects of HMB on aerobic performance and the researchers noted that those athletes in the HMB group improved their VO2max by nearly 15.5%, but there were also improvements seen in the placebo group (Lamboley, Royer & Dionne, 2007). This study was the only noted study with significant benefits of HMB use in trained individuals that were deemed significant. It must be noted that several studies that implemented intense training were able to show that HMB benefited both trained and untrained individuals when it came to strength and lean body mass increases (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008). So it may be true to say the HMB can improve the strength and lean muscle mass of individuals that are involved in an intense workout regimen. Though most studies have not been able to demonstrate a beneficial use among trained individuals; it must be noted that the standard of 4-6 weeks and 3 g/d seems to be the golden standard for supplementation while maintaining the athlete’s general workout protocol . It might be for this reason that very small benefits can be seen in trained or professional athletes (Wilson, Wilson, & Manninen, 2008).  Perhaps the dose, intensity and time period may need to be increased to see improvements with trained athletes.
In conclusion, according to current research it is clear that HMB is more beneficial for the untrained individual or trained athletes that are undergoing intense training. There is adequate research to prove the benefits of HMB for the untrained individual. However, HMB has not been shown to be extremely effective in improving strength, lean body mass, power or decreasing the effects of DOMS during training of trained and professional athletes (Wilson et al, 2009; Routhier & Stacy, 2007; Wilson, Wilson & Manninen, 2008). More research should be done to determine if HMB could be useful for trained individuals. Manipulation of the normative dose and duration could prove helpful in the determination of athletic benefits. Based off of current research, individuals just starting an exercise protocol HMB might be a great supplement for increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass. These are the two areas where untrained individuals showed the greatest improvements from HMB supplementation.. 

Images like this one are popular for supplement ads.

I am not an advocate of supplementation, however, people are going to use them and I believe that it is vital to give valid and researched information to the masses. Most supplements are safe, but there is always a risk when taking a supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements (unless a large amount of deaths are linked to a supplement) and manufacturers are not required to disclose all of the ingredients that are use in the supplement. This last statement is very important. Athletes that use supplements might find that they have taken a banned substance without their knowledge and end up disqualified from a sporting event or even banned from athletics at their school.The truth is that you can get everything you need from your food. Supplement only if you feel that you might be lacking certain nutrients or elements from your diet. Not everyone eats a well balanced diet. Research your supplement before taking them, and look at who sponsored the study. Beware of statements like: "Secret Formula", "Doctor Recommended", "Fast Results", and anything else that might be vague or lead you to believe that you will see results or weight loss in a matter of days. Research the ingredients. Research the company. Also, ask the advice of any certified fitness professional or nutritionist. 

Lamboley, C. R. H., Royer, D., & Dionne, I. J. (2007). Effects of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on aerobic performance components and body composition in college students. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 17, 56-69.

O’Conner, D. M., & Crowe, M. J. (2007). Effects of six weeks of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutrate (HMB) and HMB/creative supplementation on strength, power, and anthropometry of highly trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 21(2), 419-423.

Routhier, D. D., & Stacy, J. J. (2007). HMB use an its relationship to exercise-induced muscle damage and performance during exercise. International SportsMed Journal, 8(2), 66-77.

Wilson, G. J., Wilson, J. M., & Manninen, A. H. (2008). Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex and training experience: A review. Nutrition & Metabolism, 5(1), 1-17. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-1

Wilson, J. M., Kim, J., Lee, S., Rathmacher, J. A., Damau, B., Kingsley, J. D., Koch, H., Manninen, A. H., Saadat, R., & Panton, L. B. (2009). Acute and timing of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutrate (HMB)on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage. Nutrition & Metabolism, 6(6), 1-8.doi:10.1186/1743-7075-6-6

All images are from google.com/images

A little more realistic

No comments:

Post a Comment